TRANSLATION: Mrs. Peggy Davis.
DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL VALID STANDARD: 13.03.2001.
UTILIZATION: Companion dog.
CLASSIFICATION F.C.I.: Group 5 Spitz and primitive type. Section 6 Dogs of primitive type. Without working trial.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: According to certain experts, this dog was introduced in Peru during the Chinese immigration, soon after the promulgation of the law abolishing the slavery of the blacks by the president of Peru, Don RamÖn Castilla. On the other hand, other searchers suppose that this dog comes from the African continent through the intermediary of nomads who arrived in America accompanied by their hairless dogs. Another possible explanation is that the presence of this dog would be due to the migration of men and their dogs from Asia to America through the Bering Strait. However, next to all these suppositions, there are certain proofs such as the representations which appear on ceramics of different pre-Inca civilisations (Vicus, Mochica, Chancay, Chancay, under Tiahuanacoid influence, Chimu); in many cases the hairless dog has replaced the Puma, the snake or the falcon, this in particular and in a more evident way in the Chancay culture. As we can gather from the reproductions, the hairless dog appears during the pre-Inca archeological periods, i.e. between the years 300 BC and the years 1400 AC.
GENERAL APPEARANCE: Going by his general conformation, it is an elegant and slim dog, whose aspect expresses speed, strength and harmony without ever appearing coarse. This breed has, as a fundamental characteristic, the absence of hair all over the body. Another particular feature is that the dentition is nearly always incomplete. Of noble and affectionate nature with those nearest to him, he is reserved towards strangers, lively, alert and a good guard.
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The ratio between the height at the withers and the length of the body is of 1:1; the body of the females can be slightly longer than that of the males.
BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT: Noble and affectionate at home with those close to him, at the same time lively and alert; he is wary and a good guard in presence of strangers.
HEAD: Of lupoïd conformation.
CRANIAL REGION :
Skull: Mesocephalic. Orthoïd, i.e. the upper axes of the skull and muzzle are parallel; a slight divergence is accepted. Seen from above, the skull is broad and the head tapers toward the nose. The superciliary arches are moderately developed. The occipital crest is hardly marked.
Stop: Cranial-facial depression barely marked (approximately 140°).
Nose: The colour of the nose must be in harmony with the different colours of the skin.
Muzzle: Seen in profile, the nasal bridge is straight.
Lips: They must be as tight as possible and close to the gums.
Jaws/Teeth: The incisors are in scissor bite and the canines developed normally. The absence of one or all the premolars and molars is accepted. The lower jaw is only slightly developed.
Cheeks: Normally developed.
Eyes: Alert and intelligent expression. The eyes must be of average dimensions, slightly almond shaped, neither deep-set nor prominent, normally and regularly placed, i.e. neither too close together nor too wide apart. The colour can vary from black, going through all shades of brown up to yellow, in harmony with the skin colour. In any case, both eyes must be of the same colour. The colour of the eyelids may go from black to pink in subjects with light coloured face. The light pink colours are admitted but not sought after.
Ears: The ears must be pricked when the dog is attentive, whereas at rest, they are laid towards the back. The ears are of medium length; broad at the base, tapering progressively towards their tip, ending almost pointed. The ear set starts on the upper part of the skull to end laterally and obliquely. In erect position, the axes of the ears form an variable angle near 90°.
Upper line: Curved (convex).
Length: Approximately the same length as the head.
Shape: Near to a truncated cone shape, supple, with good musculature.
Skin: Fine, smooth and elastic. Really close to the subcutaneous tissues. No dewlap.
Topline: Straight, although certain subjects show a dorsal-lumbar convexity which disappears at croup level.
Withers: Barely accentuated.
Back: Topline straight, with well developed back muscles often forming all along the back a muscular bi-convexity which extends to the lumbar region.
Lumbar region: Strong and well muscled. Its length reaches approximately 1/5 of the height at the withers.
Croup: Its upper profile is slightly convex. Its slant compared with the horizontal is about 40°. Its solid and well muscled conformation assures a good impulsion.
Chest: Seen from the front, the chest must have a good amplitude, but without excess; comes down almost to the elbow. The ribs must be lightly sprung, never flat. The girth of the chest, measured behind the elbows, must exceed by about 18% the height at the withers.
Underline and Belly: The lower profile draws an elegant and well marked line which goes from the lower part of the chest and rises along the belly which must be well tucked up, but without excess.
TAIL: The tail is set on low. Of good thickness at its root, it tapers towards its tip. When excited, the dog can carry the tail raised in a round curve above the backline, but never as curved as being rolled up. At rest, it hangs with a slight upward hook at the tip. Sometimes carried tucked in towards the abdomen. In length it almost reaches the hock. The tail must not be docked.
FOREQUARTERS: Well united with the body. Seen from the front, they are perfectly vertical and the elbows are not turned out. The angle at the shoulders joint varies between 100° and 120°. Seen in profile, the angle formed by the pastern and the vertical will be from 15° to 20°.
Forefeet: They are semi-long and look like hare-feet. The pads are strong and heat-resistant. The interdigital membranes are well developed. The black dogs have preferably black nails and the lighter dogs light nails.
HINDQUARTERS: The muscles are rounded and elastic. The curve of the buttocks is well marked. The coxal-femoral angle varies between 120° and 130°, and the femoral-tibial angle must be of 140°. Seen from behind, the hindquarters must be vertical. Dewclaws must be eliminated.
Hind feet: As the forefeet.
GAIT / MOVEMENT: Given the structure and angulations of the above mentioned quarters, these dogs move with a rather short step, but fast and at the same time quite soft and flexible.
SKIN: The skin must be smooth and elastic all over the body, but can form a few rounded almost concentric lines on the head and round the eyes and the cheeks. It has been checked that the internal and external temperature of these dogs is exactly the same as that of other breeds. The absence of hair leads to an immediate and direct emanation of heat, different from the hairy subjects, where the heat filters through the coat (hair) by natural ventilation.
HAIR: To deserve the name of hairless dog, the coat (hair) must be non-existant. Vestiges of hair on the head and at the extremities of the legs and the tail are admitted and, sometimes, a few rare hairs appear on the back.
COLOUR: The colour of the hair can vary from black in black dogs, slate black, elephant black, bluish black, the whole scale of greys, dark brown going to light blond.
All those colours can be uniform or show pinkish patches at all points of the body.
SIZE AND WEIGHT :
There are three sizes in the males and females.
Small: from 25 to 40 cm ( 9 3/4 to 15 3/4 inches).
Medium: from 40 to 50 cm (15 3/4 to 19 3/4 inches).
Large: from 50 to 65 cm (19 3/4 to 25 3/4 inches).
The weight is in relation to the size of the males and females.
Small: from 4 to 8 kg (8,8 to 17,6 lbs).
Medium: from 8 to 12 kg (17,6 to 26,4 lbs).
Large: from 12 to 25 kg (26,4 to 55,1 lbs).
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
* Semi-erect ears.
* Presence of dewclaws on the hindquarters.
* Upper or lower prognathism.
* Deviated jaw.
* Hanging or cropped ears.
* Tail-less, short tail, docked tail.
* Excessively hairy on the parts authorised by the standard.
* Presence of hair on other parts of the body not authorised by the standard.
N.B.: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.